Indus Valley Civilisation Notes

7 Quick Important facts on Indus Valley Civilization

  1. John Marshall was the first researcher to use the term, ‘Indus Valley Civilization’.
  2. Indus Valley Civilization spread from the year 2500 – 1750 BC according to radio-carbon dating.
  3. The most distinctive feature of the Harappan Civilisation was its urbanisation.
  4. Moreover, sheep and goats, dogs, humped cattle buffalo, and elephants were domesticated in the Indus Valley Civilization.
  5. The capital cities are Mohenjodaro and Harappa.
  6. The port cities are Sutkagendor, Balakot, Lothal, Allahdino, and Kuntasi.
  7. The Indus valley people were well-acquainted with the use of both cotton and wool.

7 Major Cities of Indus Valley Civilization

Many cities belonging to Indus Valley Civilization have been found and excavated. Out of them, Archaeologists were able to find some of the major cities belonging to Indus Valley Civilization.

The Below table gives the list of 7 major cities of Indus Valley Civilization

CityState/CountryFacts about Indus Valley Civilization’s Cities
MohenjodaroSindh Province, PakistanIt was located on the right bank of River Indus.
KalibanganRajasthanIt was located on the banks of Ghaggar River
ChanhudaroSindh Province, PakistanIt was on the left bank of River Indus, to the South of Mohenjodaro
LothalGujaratIt was located at the head of Gulf of Cambay
SurkotadaGujaratIt was at the head of Rann of Kutch
BanawaliHaryanaIt was situated on the banks of now-extinct Saraswati River
DholaviraGujaratIt was excavated in the Kutch district

Seals from Indus Valley Civilization

  1. Indus Valley Civilisation produced a lot of artefacts and art forms.
  2. Indus Valley art form emerged during the second half of the third millennium BCE (i.e. 2500 BC onwards)
  3. Thousands of seals have been discovered by archaeologists from the Harappan sites.

What were the materials used to make the seals?

Most of the seals were made of steatite (it is kind of soft stone). A few of the seals were also made of gold, ivory, agate, terracotta, chert and faience.

What was the shape of the Harappan seals?

The shape of the Harappan seals was square with a 2X2 dimension.

What was the purpose of the seals?

Seals were primarily used for commercial purposes. A few seals were also used as amulets, perhaps as a kind of identity card.

What pictures were on the Harappan seals?

All the seals have pictures of animals with something written in a pictographic script (which is yet to be deciphered). Chiefly, the animals represented are tigers, elephants, bulls, bison, goats and so on. Some seals have mathematical images and must have been used for educational purposes.

Were there writings on Harappan Seals?

There are writings on both sides of the seals. The writings are in the Kharosthi style (right to left).

Some important points on Pashupati Seal.

The most famous seal is the Pashupati Seal of Harappan civilisation from Mohenjo Daro. It is a seal with a figure seated cross-legged in the centre with animals around; an elephant and a tiger to the right of the figure and rhino and a buffalo to its left.

Indus Valley Civilization – Geography, Religion, Economy, Society & Architecture of IVC

Archaeologists were able to decipher the various social, economic, religious, architectural aspects of Indus Valley Civilization.

3 Major Facts about Geography of Indus Valley Civilization

  1. Indus Valley Civilization was the largest among the four civilisations of the world (Mesopotamia, Egypt, and China)
  2. Since the first settlement was discovered along the banks of river Indus, the archaeologists named the civilisation as Indus Valley Civilization. But on the contrary only around 100 sites have been found in the Indus Valley, while over 500 sites are found along the Ghaggar-Hakra River.
  3. Most of the archaeologists prefer to call them ‘Indus-Saraswati Civilization’ based on the two river systems, while others prefer to name them as Harappan Civilisation as the first settlement was discovered in this city (Harappa).

And, according to some archaeologists, the sites along the Ghaggar-Hakra River are preserved as they lie in the uninhabited desert

Indus Valley Civilization - IVC 100 Must Know Facts - 1 

5 Facts on Size and Location of Indus Valley Civilization

  1. The Indus Valley Civilization was spread over an area of 1,260,000 sq. km over modern-India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan
  2. 1056 Indus Valley Civilization cities and settlements have been found, of which 96 have been excavated.
  3. The civilisation extended from Ghaggar-Hakra Valley in the east to Makran coast of Balochistan in the West, from Afghanistan in the Northeastern to Daimabad in Maharashtra in the South.
  4. Most of the settlements are mostly located in the broad region of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra Rivers and their tributaries.
  5. The major urban centres are Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Dholavira, Ganweriwala and Rakhigarhi.

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9 Facts on Population of Indus Valley Civilization

  1. The Population of Indus Valley Civilization was over 5 million
  2. Most of the inhabitants of the civilisation were artisans and traders.
  3. Majority of the population of Indus Valley Civilization lived in villages, it is not evident as the villages may have been constructed of destructible materials like mud or timber.
  4. Hence, it is difficult to find out the lifestyle and culture in these villages which have been lost over a period of time without any trace.
  5. The Indus Valley Civilization was a highly sophisticated civilisation with a much-organised way of living.
  6. Despite being densely populated, the cities were not chaotic, unlike contemporary cities of Mesopotamia or Egypt.
  7. Mohenjo-Daro measuring an area of about 300 hectares was the largest city.
  8. Mohenjo-Daro might have had a 40000-strong population.
  9. Allahdino was the smallest site in the Indus Valley Civilization.

5 Facts on Drainage System of Indus Valley Civilization

  1. They had advanced sanitation systems.
  2. People of the Indus Valley Civilization knew about and implemented channelling of water and the disposal of waste waterway before any other ancient civilisation did.
  3. Even the Romans built aqueducts thousands of years later.
  4. So advanced was their water management system that they had separate channels lining the Harappan streets for wastewater and stormwater (rainwater).
  5. The wastewater drains were underground, and had opening terracotta lids for cleaning purposes!

16 Facts on Town Planning of Indus Valley Civilization

  1. World’s first planned cities were found in the Indus Valley Civilization.
  2. The cities of the civilisation were planned in grid patterns with streets crossing at right angles.
  3. These marvels of urban planning were thousands of years older than the period of Hippodamus of Miletus, considered the ‘father of European urban planning’.
  4. The Indus Valley cities and towns had a rectangular grid pattern.
  5. The main streets were along the North-South direction and the secondary streets were along the East-West direction.
  6. The streets intersected at right angles. This precise pattern is believed to be owing to religious or astronomical beliefs.
  7. Apart from being well-planned and having excellent drainage systems, the Harappan cities and towns were also standardised.
  8. Almost all the places excavated are seen as having a similar structure and pattern.
  9. Even the bricks of the houses had similar dimensions!
  10. The streets found in Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa were as wide as 10.5 m.
  11. The smaller roads were at least 1.5 m wide.
  12. Archaeologists believe that the wide streets point out to market activities along with them.
  13. Harappan streets were paved with burnt bricks to facilitate the easy movement of ox carts.
  14. The cities of the Indus Valley Civilization had channels running along the streets for the disposal of drainage water.
  15. The cities of the Indus Valley Civilization could be divided into distinct neighbourhoods.
  16. Each neighbourhood had inhabitants who were engaged in a particular profession.

Connect INV’s town planning with India’s urban planning today. This will help to connect the dots for the answer-writing in UPSC Mains exams.

3 Facts on World’s Oldest Signboard belonging to IVC

  1. A board with stone symbols/letters over 30 cm in height in a wooden frame was discovered at Dholavira in 1999.
  2. Archaeologists believe this was the world’s first signboard!
  3. It is thought to have been placed at the façade of the northern gate of the city’s citadel.

3 Major Facts on Hygiene and Cleanliness in Indus Valley Civilization

Fact 1: Hygiene was Top Priority

  1. The people of the Indus Valley Civilization led a very hygienic, clean and healthy life.

The excavations reveal this fact.

  1. A large number of public baths, the excellent water management system, running water in every house, neat drainage systems and the underground wastewater systems all point out to the importance of hygiene in Harappan life.

Fact 2: Dustbins along the streets

  1. Even in those ancient times, the Indus Valley Civilization was way ahead of its time in terms of civic sense.
  2. There were dustbins placed along the streets in Mohenjo-Daro!
  3. These were brick containers, especially for garbage disposal.

Fact 3: Every city had its own Great Bath

  1. Every city in the civilisation had at least one Great Bath.
  2. It is believed that they might have had a religious purpose.

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(The Great Bath at Mohenjo-Daro, Sindh, Pakistan)

6 Major Facts about Religion in Indus Valley Civilization

  1. Matridevi or Shakti is the Mother goddess
  2. Yoni worship and Nature worship existed.
  3. They worshipped trees like Peepal
  4. They also worshipped Fire, called Havan Kund.
  5. Pashupati Mahadeva is known as the lord of Animals
  6. The people of Indus Valley Civilisation carried out Animal worship like Unicorn and ox.

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No temples in the Indus Valley Civilization

  1. Archaeologists haven’t found any structure resembling a temple or a palace or any monument.
  2. In fact, most other contemporary civilisations have some central monuments.
  3. The absence of any palace or temple despite structures like granaries and public baths led historians to believe that the Indus Valley society was an egalitarian one.

After IVC, major Indian temple architecture styles came into the picture. Read about these in the linked article.

10 Major Economic Facts of Indus Valley Civilization

  1. Indus valley civilisation is based on agriculture
  2. Trade and commerce flourished in this period.
  3. The Mesopotamian (Sumerian) scribes in the Middle Bronze Age refer frequently to a place they call Meluhha. Meluhha was a prominent trading partner of the Sumerians and they imported timber and ebony in high volumes.
  4. Sesame oil and luxury items like lapis lazuli were also imported from Meluhha, which was in all probability, the Indus Valley Civilization.
  5. A dockyard has been found at Lothal.
  6. There were exports and imports.
  7. Production of cotton was there
  8. 16 was the unit of measurement
  9. Weights and measures existed in Harappan culture, and were seen at Lothal.
  10. The weights were made of limestone, steatite, etc. and were usually cubical in shape.

Indus Valley Civilization were the world’s earliest cotton cultivators

  1. The earliest traces of cotton in the world were found here. The earliest evidence for the use of cotton was found in Mehrgarh dating back to the sixth millennium B.C.
  2. The Indus Valley farmers were the first ones to spin and weave cotton.
  3. Cotton was also one of the export items.

Indus Valley had large-scale maritime trade relations with other civilisations

  1. Many port-cities have been unearthed which proves the existence of large-scale maritime trade relations with other civilisations.
  2. Lothal could be the world’s first dockyard.
  3. Other ports include Allahdino, Suktagendor and Balakot.

Indus Valley Civilization had the world’s first buttons

  1. The world’s first buttons were found here dating back to 2800 – 2600 B.C.
  2. Buttons were made out of seashells and some of them had holes pierced in them for them to be attached to clothes with threads.
  3. Buttons in the Indus Valley were used more for their ornamental value rather than for utility.

8 Major Facts about Society of Indus Valley Civilization 

There were plenty of clues from the excavations to help us understand substantial information about the social life of inhabitants of Indus Valley Civilization.

The below table gives information on Social Facts of Indus Valley Civilization

Recreation activities1. Hunting

2. Fishing

3. Clay modelling

4. Bullfighting

Family Bonding1. There was a very strong family bonding

2. Children were taught the art of crafts making by their parents.

Household Decorations and Tools1. Household decoration articles were either made of metals like Copper and Bronze or the decoration articles were made of pottery.

2. Chairs were used

Kitchen Utensils1. The utensils used were jars, dishes, vessels etc.

2. The above items were made of earth and stone.

Clothing1. Cotton clothes were used

2. Woollen clothes were used

Cosmetics1. Women used various cosmetics and face paint.
Food1. Rice, wheat, barley, rice, milk

2. Vegetables like sesame, peas

3.Fruits like Date Palm

4.Mutton, Fish etc

Literacy & Cleanliness1. The extensive drainage system is an indication of the importance given to cleanliness.

2. Letters engraved on seals is an indication of literacy

Archaeologists first thought that they had stumbled upon cities of children

  1. When the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were first discovered, a large number of toys including dice, whistles and marbles were found.
  2. This led the archaeologists to think that the majority of the inhabitants of those cities were children.

The Indus Valley people were playful

  1. Among the artefacts that have been found on sites like Mohenjo-Daro are toys and games.
  2. They have unearthed cubical dice having one to six holes (quite like the ones we have today)!
  3. Other toys include clay figures of bullock carts, spinning tops, marbles, miniature pots and utensils, etc.

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7 Major Facts about Art and Crafts in Indus Valley Civilization

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  1. Art and craft during the Indus Valley period were highly sophisticated.
  2. Their artefacts display a high level of achievement in terms of aesthetic value and the technique used.
  3. Their ware includes terracotta, bronze, copper and other metals.
  4. They were also experts in bead-making.
  5. This is a very important discovery because it shows the expertise of the Indus Valley civilisation in metal bending and casting. It also signifies the importance of dance as a form of entertainment in those times.
  6. Archaeologist Sir John Marshall (who discovered the Indus Valley Civilization in a way) has remarked, “When I first saw them I found it difficult to believe that they were prehistoric…”
  7. These wonderful pieces of art, made using the lost-wax casting process, dated thousands of years before the Greeks.

8 Major Facts on Advances in Architecture in Indus Valley Civilisation

Fact 1: Harappa had very advanced granaries

  1. The granaries in Harappa used advanced technology that was seen in Rome 2800 years later.
  2. 6 granaries in 2 rows were found in Harappa.
  3. It was built on a raised platform to protect it from floods.
  4. The Granary was approximately 45 metres in length and approximately 15 metres in breadth.
  5. The sites also had citadels, bathing platforms and burial grounds.

Fact 2: The Harappan cities had water-reservoirs

  1. At the Harappan city of Dholavira, 16 water reservoirs have been found.
  2. These reservoirs serve the twin purposes of protecting the city from floods, and ensuring water supply throughout the year, even during the dry season.
  3. They built dams that could control the flow of water and be stored in huge reservoirs.

Fact 3: The Indus Valley Civilization used standard burnt bricks everywhere

  1. There were two types of bricks used in the Mature Harappan Period. One measured 7 X 14 X 28 cm and the other measured 10 X 20 X 40 cm in size.
  2. The bigger bricks were used to construct public buildings.
  3. The smaller bricks were used to build houses.
  4. Both types of bricks followed the 1:2:4 ratio.

Fact 4: Ratio 1:2:4 in the Indus Valley Civilization Architecture

  1. The ratio 1:2:4 was not limited to bricks, but to all aspects.
  2. This ratio was followed in the houses, public structures, neighbourhood regions and even the city.
  3. Historians do not know whether this standardisation was owing to religious beliefs or just a convention followed by the builders.

Fact 5: Harappan houses were multi-storied buildings

  1. So advanced was their architecture and masonry that Harappa had two and three-storied houses.
  2. These spacious houses had central courtyards and accessible flat terraces too.

Fact 6: The Indus Valley houses could keep off dust and noise

  1. None of the houses in the Indus Valley had windows facing the main streets.
  2. The houses had only one door.
  3. All the windows and the door of the houses would open into the central courtyard.
  4. Thus, they were strategically designed to avoid noise and dust.

Fact 7: Houses with attached bathrooms

  1. Indus Valley civilisation was perhaps the first in the world to have houses with attached bathrooms.
  2. They also had access to running water.
  3. In addition, they had toilets with advanced drainage facilities.

Fact 8: The world’s first rainwater harvesting was here

  1. The Harappan civilisation had systems to store rainwater.
  2. They had complex and efficient water management systems.
  3. The world’s public water tank, named The Great Bath, was found here.
  4. The city of Mohenjo-Daro also had a large water management system with 80 public toilets and about 700 wells.
  5. The wells were strategically placed to supply water to every locality.

Aspirants should know that questions often are asked where aspirants need to draw analysis from IVC’s era till today. Keeping that in mind, candidates can link the rainwater harvesting during IVC with the present National Water Mission.

7 Facts on good advancements in Metallurgy in Indus Valley Civilization 

  1. They produced metal products including those in lead, copper, bronze and tin.
  2. They exported these products.
  3. They knew the technique of smelting copper with other metals.
  4. Gold necklaces smaller than 0.25 mm in diameter have been excavated at Lothal. Other metal artefacts have been found in Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa and Rangpur.
  5. Harappan copper implements were made by the method of casting.
  6. Bronze vessels were made from a single sheet which was hammered.
  7. Metal alloying technology was well-developed in the Indus Valley Civilization.

They even tested the purity of gold by the touchstone technique

  1. A touchstone has been recovered from Banawali, Haryana.
  2. This touchstone has streaks of gold in it indicating that it was probably used to assay the purity of gold.
  3. This technique is used in some parts of the country to this day.

IVC 100 Must Know Facts - 7 IVC 100 Must Know Facts - 8

4 Facts on Precise Measurement Systems in The Indus Valley Civilization 

  1. Stone cubes have been excavated from the sites of this civilisation. Archaeologists believe them to be weighted for measurement.
  2. These weights increase in a ratio of 5:2:1. They had weights of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 units.
  3. They are different from the system of measurement of Egypt and Mesopotamia of that time, so it can be concluded that this system was developed indigenously.
  4. The smallest division on a marking on an ivory scale was around 1.704 mm found in Lothal, Gujarat. This is the smallest recorded division found from the Bronze Age.

9 Major General Facts of Indus Valley Civilization

Fact 1: The oldest Indus Valley settlement was established around 7000 B.C.

  1. Mehrgarh is the oldest known settlement dating back to around 7000 B.C.
  2. It began during the Pre-Harappan period.
  3. Mehrgarh was a farming village.

Fact 2: Over 4000 seals have been found from the sites

  1. These seals are small, rectangular stone slabs with inscriptions on them.
  2. They also have images of animals and other figures on them.
  3. The use of these seals is uncertain.

Fact 3: The city of Mohenjo-Daro was built at least 9 times

  1. Many of the cities of this civilisation were destroyed several times by flood, deposition of silts, etc.
  2. Each time they were rebuilt.
  3. What is amazing is that every time they rebuilt the cities, they employed the same grid pattern.
  4. Mohenjo-Daro was constructed nine times and each time on top of the earlier grid.
  5. This shows the sophistication in their urban planning.

Fact 4: The Indus Valley Civilization even had dentists among them

  1. In 2006, Nature journal declared that the first evidence of drilling of the human teeth in a live person was found in Mehrgarh, present Pakistan.
  2. This discovery was done in 2001 when eleven drilled molar crowns were unearthed from a Neolithic grave in Mehrgarh dating between 5500 B.C. and 7000 B.C.
  3. This remarkable discovery shows that people of the Indus Valley Civilization had knowledge of proto-dentistry.

Fact 5: The Indus Valley Script has still Not Been Deciphered

  1. One of the reasons we don’t know much about this civilisation is that their script has not yet been deciphered.
  2. Around 400 different symbols have been identified inscribed in objects.
  3. They appear in strings of between 3 and 20.
  4. Historians believe they are probably names and don’t have any other meaning.

Fact 6: No Depiction of any King or Ruler

  1. Despite having an organised way of life, there is no depiction or evidence of any ruler or any governing system for the Harappan civilisation.
  2. The closest depiction to any kind of a central figure is a terracotta sculpture believed to be that of a priest-king.

IVC 100 Must Know Facts - 9

Fact 7: No Evidence of Warfare

  1. Although some weapons like spears, knives and arrow-heads have been excavated from the sites, there is no evidence of warfare from the Indus Valley Civilization.
  2. It is concluded that they were, in general, a peace-loving people.
  3. It is also possible that this was because they had no natural enemies and the other settlements had good trade relations with them.

Fact 8: Cause of Decline: Unknown

  1. Historians are not sure what led to the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization.
  2. Experts are now sure that it wasn’t invasion, disease or any other calamity that caused their decline.
  3. The cities and settlements started declining gradually and they seemed to have been abandoned by the inhabitants who might have migrated to greener pastures.
  4. It is believed that the gradual drying up of the Saraswati River might have led to this.
  5. The civilisation did not come to an abrupt end but declined gradually and got assimilated into other cultures.

Fact 9: How did the British utilise the remains from excavated sites of Indus Valley Civilisation?

  1. In 1856, when the British were building the East Indian Railway Company line from Karachi to Lahore, they faced a shortage of bricks.
  2. The British used 4000-year old bricks from the nearby villages of Harappa where they found bricks from a ‘ruined city’ to lay down 93 miles (150 km) of railway track

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) and Answers

Q 1. Which of the following dockyards belonged to the Indus Valley Civilisation?

  1. Lothal
  2. Tuticorin
  3. Poompuhar
  4. Arikamedu

Answer: 1

Q 2. Which of the following statements are true?

  1. People from Indus Valley worshipped Peepal Tree
  2. People from Indus Valley worshipped Nature
  3. People from Indus Valley considered Shakti as the Mother Goddess
  4. They worshipped fire.

Which of the following is correct?

  1. Only A
  2. Only B
  3. Only C and D
  4. All of the above-given statements are true

Answer: 4

Q 3. Which of the following cities had Port during Indus Valley Civilisation?

  1. Sutkagendor
  2. Balakot
  3. Kuntasi
  4. None of the above

Which of the following is correct?

  1. A only
  2. B only
  3. D
  4. A, B and C

Answer: 4

Q 4. Dholavira is located in which of the following districts?

  1. Fatehabad
  2. Saurashtra
  3. Khairpur
  4. Kutch

Answer: 4

Q 5. Kuntasi in Indus Valley was known for

  1. Bead Making factory
  2. Salt Production
  3. Small Port
  4. Fire altars

Answer: 1

Q 6. Mohenjodaro was located in which state/province?

  1. Balochistan
  2. Gujarat
  3. Sindh
  4. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Answer: 3

Q 7. Which of the following Indus Valley sites are not located in Haryana?

  1. Banawali
  2. Bargaon
  3. Bhirrana
  4. Farmana

Answer: 2

Q 8. Which of the following Harappan sites are located in the foothills of the Himalayas?

  1. Lothal
  2. Mehrgarh
  3. Larkana
  4. Manda

Answer: 4

Q 9. In which of the following Indus Valley Civilization sites a pitcher filled with 8000 pearls was found?

  1. Baror
  2. Banawali
  3. Chanhudaro
  4. Dholavira

Answer: 1

Q 10. Which of the following sites had a figure of a chariot tied to a pair of bullocks

  1. Ganweriwala
  2. Hisar
  3. Kuntasi
  4. Dholavira

Answer: 4

Q 11. Consider the following about Indus Valley Civilisation:

  1. Seals of Indus valley are made of steatite only
  2. Seals of Indus valley are in Rectangular in shape

Which of the following is correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both
  4. None

Answer: 4

Q 12. Which of the following statement/s is/are true?

  1. There is enough evidence that Indus Valley Civilization people indulged in a lot of wars.
  2. The British did not utilise the remains of excavations from Indus Valley Civilization.
  3. The Indus Valley Scripts have not been deciphered.
  4. Molar crowns were unearthed in one of the excavations.

Which of the following is correct?

  1. All 4 of the statements are true
  2. Only B and C is true
  3. Only A is true.
  4. Both C and D are true.

Answer: 4

Q 13. Which of the following is true?

  1. Mohenjodaro was rebuilt at least 9 times.
  2. Over 4000 seals have been found at sites.
  3. Their artefacts do not display a high level of aesthetic value and technique.
  4. Mehrgarh was a farming village

Which of the following is correct?

  1. A only
  2. A and D only
  3. All 4 are false
  4. All 4 are true.

Answer: 2

Q 14. Which of the following statement/s is/are true?

  1. Stone Cubes have been excavated
  2. They had weights of 5,50,500 units
  3. The Indus Valley system of measurement was the same as the measurement system adopted in Egypt and Mesopotamia.
  4. The smallest division of marking on an ivory scale was 100 mm.

Which of the following is correct?

  1. Only A is true
  2. Only B is true.
  3. All statements are true
  4. Only A and B is true.

Answer: 4

Q 15. Which of the following statement/s is/are true?

  1. The granaries used in Harappa were not as advanced as ones found in Rome, 2800 years later.
  2. It was not built on a raised platform.
  3. The sites had citadels, bathing platforms and burial grounds.
  4. 6 granaries were found in Harappa.

Which of the following is correct?

  1. Only A is true
  2. All are false
  3. Only A and B are true.
  4. Only C and D are true.

Answer: 4

Q 16. Which of the following statement/s is/are true?

  1. Archaeologists thought the majority of inhabitants in Harappa and Mohenjodaro were children.
  2. When Harappa and Mohenjodaro were first discovered, very few toys were found.
  3. Some of the toys found in Indus Valley Civilization were made of clay.
  4. Archaeologists had unearthed cubical dice in Indus Valley Civilisation sites.

Which of the following is correct?

  1. A, C and D are true
  2. All the given statements are true
  3. All the given statements are false
  4. Only A is true.

Answer: 1

Q 17. Which of the following statement/s is/are false?

  1. Hunting, fishing & bullfighting was not a recreational activity in Indus Valley Civilization
  2. There was no family bonding among inhabitants of Indus Valley Civilization
  3. Cotton clothes were not used in Indus Valley Civilization
  4. They did not have any fruits.

Which of the following is correct?

  1. All statements are true.
  2. Only A and D is false
  3. All statements are false
  4. Only C and B are false.

Answer: 3

Q 18. Which of the following is statement/s is/are true?

  1. Lothal was not the world’s first dockyard.
  2. Suktagendor was not a Port City.
  3. Cotton was one of the import items.
  4. The earliest evidence of Cotton was found in Allahdino

Which of the following is correct?

  1. All the statements are true.
  2. Only A, C, D are true.
  3. None of the given statements are true
  4. Only D is true.

Answer: 3

Q 19. Which of the following statement/s is/are true?

  1. Indus Valley Civilization was mainly an agricultural economy.
  2. The weights used were usually cubical in shape.
  3. The weights were made of limestone, steatite etc.
  4. Ganweriwala and Rakhigarhi were some of the major rural locations.

Which of the following is correct?

  1. Only A and B is true
  2. All statements are true.
  3. Only A is true.
  4. Only statements A, B and C are true.

Answer: 4

Q 20. Which of the following statements are true?

  1. Over 2000 Indus Valley Civilization cities and settlements have been found.
  2. Over 1000 Indus Valley Civilisation sites have been excavated.
  3. Indus Valley Civilisation sites have been extended from Balochistan in the East to Ghaggar Hakra Valley in the West.
  4. Among the 4 major civilisations, Chinese, Egypt, Mesopotamia and Indus Valley Civilization, Indus was the smallest of all of them.

Which of the following is correct?

  1. All the given statements are true
  2. Only statements A and B are true.
  3. Only statements C and D are true.
  4. None of the given statements is true.

Answer: 4

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